What You Need to Know Before Getting an IUD

What You Need to Know Before Getting an IUD

IUDs or intrauterine devices are one of the most popular methods of birth control among women, particularly in recent years. Many women like that it offers many benefits that the pill cannot: it is a “set it and forget it” method of birth control, involving a one-time payment, and the patient does not have to remember to take a pill at the same time on a daily basis. If you are considering getting an IUD, there are a few things you should know before having it inserted

What is an IUD?

An IUD is a small, flexible, T-shaped plastic device that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. There are five brands of IUD divided into two different types:

  • Copper IUDs (a.k.a. ParaGard)
  • Hormonal IUDs (include Mirena, Kyleena, Liletta, and Skyla)

Hormonal IUDs work by using the hormone progestin to thicken cervical mucus which blocks sperm. Copper IUDs are wrapped in a small bit of copper, are nonhormonal, and act as spermicide, damaging sperm mobility and viability. The body’s response to the IUD varies from person to person; for some, ovulation is prevented too while for others, it is not. Generally, they all work by preventing sperm from getting to the egg. 

The main difference between the two types of IUDs is how long you can keep them in without benign replaced. ParaGard can remain in place for up to 12 years while the Mirena and Liletta can for six years, Kyleena for five years, and Skyla for three years.

IUDs are ranked for the same effectiveness at preventing pregnancy as getting your tubes tied but they do not impact your future fertility. The IUD has a 99% rate of effectiveness, largely because, unlike the pill, it is not something you can forget to take, therefore, there is no user error involved. 

How is an IUD inserted? Is it painful?

In the insertion process, the cervix is opened and the IUD is placed into the uterus. While the insertion process can be slightly painful, the procedure generally takes just a few minutes. You may experience cramping for about 24 to 48 hours after the procedure as this is a common response among women after an IUD is inserted.

Will an IUD affect my period?

Whether or not your period alters, depends on the type of IUD you choose. Hormonal IUDs tend to make periods lighter and shorter and lessen cramps. IUDs may instead cause a heavier period, but this generally fades over time. Every woman reacts differently but if you are concerned about how you may react to an IUD, you should discuss this with your OBGYN during your consultation appointment

What are the pros and cons of an IUD?

In addition to the advantages previously mentioned, IUDs have long-lasting effects but can be reversed simply by removing the IUD. What makes the IUD appealing to many is that you visit an office once to have it inserted then you don’t have to remember on a daily basis to take a pill. It is the most effective but also reversible form of contraception. 

The biggest disadvantage of IUDs is the discomfort they can cause women. There are a wide array of side effects that can come along with them including abdominal or pelvic pain, nausea, vomiting, migraines, headaches, spotting or irregular bleeding, and breast tenderness. The side effects vary depending on which type of IUD you get. 

This does not typically happen but there is a slim chance your IUD could fall out, most commonly during a period in the first three months. Your OBGYN may recommend that you check to feel for the IUD string occasionally but never pull it out. If your IUD does become dislodged, see your OBGYN ASAP to have it reinserted.

Can STDs Cause Infertility?

Can STDs Cause Infertility?

Finding out that you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD) can come with a host of overwhelming emotions including surprise, anger, and fear and even more questions. You wonder if it’s curable or how it will affect your life. You worry about having to tell future sexual partners or how it might affect your plan to have children someday if that is your hope. Whether or not it will affect your fertility depends on your condition as well as how early you detect it. 

Which STDs can cause infertility?

The problem is that some STDs don’t come with identifiable symptoms so people can live with them for years without being aware of them. This increases the risk of developing complications like infertility or infecting future sex partners. Early detection is the best way to avoid such risk as infertility caused by STDs is highly preventable.

Chlamydia

This is one of the most common STDs. On its own, the disease doesn’t cause infertility, however 40% of women with chlamydia develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID affects the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, often leading the woman to become infertile. 

Chlamydia is one of the STDs that doesn’t have symptoms so most women that have it are unaware that they do. In some rare cases, a woman may experience signs of the infection including unusual vaginal discharge, a burning sensation while urinating, and painful sex. 

Fortunately, chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics which is why it is so critical that it is caught and treated early.

Gonorrhea

Here is another example of an STD that rarely shows symptoms. People who do show symptoms may experience spotting between periods, burning while urinating, or vaginal discharge that is white, yellow, or green. The infection can affect the urethra and cervix.

Gonorrhea can also be treated with antibiotics but, if left untreated, it can spread to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It can cause the fallopian tubes to scar, making it difficult for the sperm to reach and fertilize the egg and also increasing the possibility of the person getting pelvic inflammatory disease. 

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

HPV is the most common STD in the US. This is a group of more than 150 viruses, some of which can lead to cancer of the reproductive organs. Most people don’t have symptoms which is why it’s so important that you are scheduling annual exams with your OBGYN. Detecting HPV early can decrease the risk of it developing into cancer of the vulva or cervix which can cause infertility.

Preventing infertility caused by STDs

Since STDs can remain in the body for years without ever showing signs, all sexually active women should have annual screenings where they are tested for STDs.

Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts and What to Do About Them

Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts and What to Do About Them

While it is pretty common for women to have ovarian cysts, it is important to understand where they come from, how they affect your body, and what you should look for and do about them. Ovarian cysts can come in many different forms and most are pretty harmless. However, when you start to consistently feel bloated, feel sharp random pains, or experience pain during sex, these are signs that you should make an appointment with your OBGYN and get yourself checked out. 

What are ovarian cysts?

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that can form in a woman’s ovaries, generally during her menstrual cycle and they typically go unnoticed. While most are painless, cysts can become a problem when they are enlarged or don’t go away. 

It is normal for a woman to experience having at least one ruptured cyst a month because during a normal menstrual cycle, the ovaries produce a cyst that intentionally ruptures to release an egg, allowing the woman to become pregnant. When the cyst ruptures, fluid is released into the pelvis in a process called ovulation. If the egg that was released is fertilized by sperm, a pregnancy occurs. If not, a period occurs. 

While the vast majority of ovarian cysts are benign (non-cancerous) and harmless, if you have abnormal pains or discomfort for an extended period of time, you should look out for these signs: 

Irregular or delayed periods

Periods can be complicated and irregularities can occur for a number of reasons (check out our article on the causes of irregular periods). Ovarian cysts can be yet another factor that complicates periods further and can add pain and discomfort. Some months, the cyst that forms is larger and releases more fluid, causing immense pain while other months the cyst is smaller, releasing less fluid and causing slight discomfort. 

Sharp pain around your pelvic region

While mild to moderate pain may come with your period, if you experience random, excruciating pains outside of your menstrual cycle, it may indicate complicated cysts. You will most likely feel this pain in your lower pelvic region where your ovaries are located. Look out for a pain that stays in one specific area and stays even after your period goes away. 

Sex is painful

If you find yourself experiencing pain during sex when that has not normally been the case, you should make an appointment with your OBGYN. Enlarged cysts can make sex incredibly uncomfortable and even painful. 

You constantly feel the urge to go to the bathroom

If you constantly feel like you need to use the bathroom, it may be that a large ovarian cyst is pushing on your bladder and applying constant pressure to that organ. An easy way to detect if this is the case for you is to monitor how many times you are using the bathroom throughout the day and note what you’re doing on each trip. If you often get to the bathroom and find you don’t have the urge to urinate, you should schedule an appointment with your doctor. 

You feel hormonal

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a condition where women have several small cysts on their ovaries that affect their hormones and can cause irregular periods, sudden weight gain, and acne. Because there are so many cysts on such a small space, it can cause an imbalance in estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone, which triggers the above-mentioned symptoms. The only way to diagnose PCOS is by having a doctor run a blood test or conduct an ultrasound exam. 

How can I prevent and treat ovarian cysts?

Unfortunately, there are no preventative measures a woman can take to keep ovarian cysts from forming. They occur naturally as part of the menstrual cycle or on their own. However, if you feel any of the aforementioned symptoms: vomiting, heavy bleeding, or excruciating pain, there may be complications and you should consult your OBGYN. He or she will conduct a pelvic ultrasound to diagnose enlarged ovarian cysts and then conduct a follow-up ultrasound three to four months later during a period. Enlarged cysts typically disappear within that time. 

Some cysts will require surgical removal but in the majority of cases, cysts are nothing to worry about.

Everything You Need to Know About Periods

Everything You Need to Know About Periods

A period, also known as menstruation or a menstrual cycle, occurs when the lining of a female’s uterus breaks down and leaves the body, usually every month. The lining is made up of blood, tissue, and nutrients – the development of which is the body’s preparation for pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, meaning the woman’s egg is not fertilized by a sperm, hormones tell the body to shed the lining that’s been built over the last 28 days (on average), resulting in a period that varies in length from one woman to the next.

When do periods begin and end?

Periods start during puberty, which is when a girl’s body begins to change, typically between the ages of 8 and 15 years old. It’s important to remember that periods look different for everyone so the side effects, ages at which it starts and ends, and how long each menstrual cycle lasts vary from person to person. However, as a rule of thumb, if a girl’s period has not started by the age of 16, she should be evaluated by a physician to assess the cause of the delay.

Periods end when women enter menopause which generally falls between the ages of 45 and 55 years old.

What side effects come along with a period?

Side effects may start up to two weeks before the start of a menstrual cycle. Women may notice a change in the body with symptoms called Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). These can include:

  • Back pain
  • Fatigue
  • Acne and breakouts
  • Headaches
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Bloating
  • Mood swings
  • Insomnia
  • Swollen or tender breasts

As these symptoms recur each month around the same time, they usually start to become predictable and more manageable. When symptoms start to become overwhelming, there are steps you can take to ease them:

  • Limit intake of fat, salt, sugar, caffeine, and alcohol. An adjustment in diet can help to ease the side effects of PMS.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Over the counter medications like acetaminophen and ibuprofen can effectively lessen symptoms.
  • Consider hormonal birth control like the pill.

If you find that any of these premenstrual symptoms are overwhelming to the point that they are impacting your daily life, you should talk to your OBGYN. He or she may be able to find ways to ease the intensity and frequency of your symptoms. 

Should I use pads, tampons, or a menstrual cup?

There is no right or wrong answer here because all three methods allow women to go about their daily lives by collecting the blood that the body releases during a period. It is, however, important to know the basics of each option to make the best decision for you.

Pads are worn outside of the body so they collect the blood after it exits the body. Most pads are disposable after one use while others are made of cloth and meant to be washed after use. The material is highly absorbent to avoid leakage. Many women start off using pads when they first start their periods because they don’t require insertion into the vagina and are easy to use.

Tampons act almost like a plug that’s inserted into the vagina where it absorbs the menstrual blood before it leaves the body. Tampons generally come with an applicator that makes for easy and quick insertion and have a string that makes for easy removal. They are also highly absorbent and disposable after one use (up to 8 hours). Many women prefer tampons because they are small and discreet, they are usually not felt once they’ve been properly inserted into the body, and they allow women to engage in a greater range of activities than pads do, including swimming and other active sports. It is very important to change tampons every 4-8 hours (overnight is also ok) to avoid bacteria buildup which can result in a very rare condition called Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS). This rare but serious condition can result from wearing a tampon for longer than 8 hours.

Menstrual cups look like little inverted bells and similarly to tampons, they are worn inside the vagina. Rather than absorbing the blood like both pads and tampons, menstrual cups are made of medical-grade flexible silicone and collect the blood while inside the vagina. They are then emptied, washed, and reinserted into the vagina. Menstrual cups are more environmentally-friendly as they are not thrown out after a single use, which is why many women prefer this method. Women also like menstrual cups because they can be worn for up to 12 hours at a time without the risk of developing Toxic Shock Syndrome.

Can you get pregnant on your period?

You sure can! Although the risk of pregnancy is lower during your period, it is still a good idea to use some form of birth control to avoid unintentional pregnancies. 

What to do if your period comes late

First, do not panic! It is common for periods to not always come 28 days apart on the dot. A typical menstrual cycle falls between 21-34 days, but there are quite a few factors that can affect the regularity of periods including weight gain or loss, stress, diet, medication, excessive exercise, and other lifestyle factors.

If your period does not come within 35 days and you are sexually active, you should take a pregnancy test even if you are on birth control. If a pregnancy test comes back negative or you are not sexually active, you should check in with your doctor who may want to conduct tests to determine the cause of this irregularity. 

 

If you have additional questions, our highly knowledgeable staff has answers. Call us to set up an appointment: 757-455-8833.

How to Protect Yourself If You've Had Unprotected Sex

How to Protect Yourself If You’ve Had Unprotected Sex

Unprotected sex, although typically not planned, can happen. Maybe you missed a day or two taking your birth control pill or you had sex without a condom or barrier of protection. If you or a friend find yourself in a situation like this, the first step would be to call your primary care provider who will help you to find the best solution to reduce your risk of pregnancy. Today, we’ll answer your burning questions about your options after having unprotected sex. 

What are my emergency contraceptive options?

The Morning-After Pill

This is a popular choice after having unprotected sex as it can significantly reduce your risk of pregnancy. It’s a hormone-based medication that can delay ovulation (ovaries releasing eggs which will then be fertilized by a sperm). These are readily available over-the-counter at most pharmacies; you will likely see Plan B which is a popular brand of morning-after pills. There are also more effective pills that may be a better fit for your particular situation but these will most likely require a prescription.

Copper Intrauterine Device (IUD)

The copper IUD is a hormone-free, long-acting reverse contraception. When used as birth control, it can remain effective for up to 12 years but it can also be used as emergency contraception as it prevents your eggs from being implanted in the uterus. If you are interested in having an IUD inserted, give us a call!

How effective are these emergency contraception options?

The copper IUD is the most effective, preventing unplanned pregnancies for 99% of users. If taken within the first 72 hours after having unprotected sex, Plan B is about 75-89% effective but becomes less effective in women who weigh 155 pounds or more. The ‘ella’ morning-after pill can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex and is 85% effective and not dependent on your weight. 

How long after unprotected sex should I use emergency contraception?

The short answer: the sooner, the better. The length of time is completely dependent upon which method you choose but in most cases, emergency contraception is effective if taken within 3 days while ‘ella’ is effective up to 5 days after unprotected sex. The IUD has the longest grace period with effectiveness up to 7 days after sex. But the sooner you take the contraceptive method of choice the better so don’t delay. 

Will I be able to get pregnant later?

There have been no studies that have produced results that morning-after pills or copper IUDs have negative effects on future pregnancies. You can take them as needed, keeping in mind that, aside from the IUD, they should not be used as a replacement for regular birth control. 

Are there side effects?

The side effects that accompany morning-after pills are similar to those of birth control pills and are typically not something to worry too much about. You may experience some of the following side effects:

  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Spotting between periods
  • Heavier bleeding during your period
  • Cramps
  • Breast tenderness
  • Lightheadedness

These side effects typically go away after a few days but if you experience them consistently after taking emergency contraceptive, speak to your primary care provider. 

Everything You Need to Know About Mammograms

Everything You Need to Know About Mammograms

What is a mammogram?

A mammogram is an x-ray picture of the breast that can be used not only to detect breast cancer in women that are showing no signs or symptoms of the disease but also to check for breast cancer in women after a lump or other sign has been found. There are two different types of mammograms: screening and diagnostic. 

What is the difference between screening and diagnostic mammograms?

A screening mammogram is done as a preventative measure in women who have not displayed any signs or symptoms of breast cancer because the x-ray images allow you to detect tumors that a physical screening may not. 

A diagnostic mammogram is used to check for breast cancer after a lump or other sign of breast cancer has been detected. Just like we mentioned in our Breast Cancer Awareness blog post, there are many other signs of breast cancer besides finding a lump. Some of these signs may include breast pain, thickening of the skin of the breast, nipple discharge, or changes in the size, shape, or appearance of your breasts. These signs can, however, also be related to benign conditions which is why a diagnostic mammogram is important to further evaluate changes that may have been found during a screening mammogram.

Both types of mammograms use the same machine. The major differences between the two are (1) the amount of radiation you will be exposed to is higher in a diagnostic mammogram because more x-ray images are needed to view the breast from multiple angles, and (2) diagnostic mammograms take longer to obtain than screening mammograms. 

What are the benefits of screening mammograms?

Early detection of breast cancer with screening mammography means that treatment can be started earlier, potentially before it can spread. This vastly increases the possibility of overcoming the disease. But we can’t talk about the benefits of screening mammograms without also talking about the risks that can come with them.

What are the potential hazards of mammograms?

Radiation exposure

Mammograms require radiation and, although it is in very small doses and results in low exposure, repeated x-rays have the potential to cause cancer. The benefits of mammography do almost always outweigh the potential harm from radiation exposure, however, you should speak with your health care provider about the need for continued x-rays. You should also be sure to disclose your potential of being pregnant with your health care provider and x-ray technician as radiation can be extremely harmful to a growing fetus.

False-positive results

A false-positive is when a radiologist sees an abnormality that could be a positive on an x-ray picture but there is no cancer present in reality. All mammograms that do find abnormalities should be followed up with additional testing to determine whether or not cancer is truly present. 

False-positive results are most common among younger women, women with dense breasts, women with a family history of breast cancer, women who have had previous breast biopsies, and women who are taking estrogen. 

False-positive mammograms can lead to anxiety and emotional and physical distress and the additional testing required to determine the presence or absence of cancer can be costly, time-consuming, and physically uncomfortable.

False-negative results

A negative result in cancer screening means no abnormality is present. A false-negative result gives the impression that the mammogram is normal despite the fact that breast cancer is present. This occurs most frequently among women who have high breast density and younger women because as women grow older, their breasts become more fatty which makes false-negative results less likely. 

A false-negative result can give a false sense of security and can delay treatment. 

I have breast implants. What can I do about screening mammograms?

While implants can hide some breast tissue and therefore make it difficult for a radiologist to detect an abnormality in the mammogram images, women with breast implants should still get regular mammograms. If you have gotten implants as a result of a mastectomy, ask your doctor whether or not they recommend a mammogram of the reconstructed breast. 

In either case, it is important that you let the mammography facility know that you have breast implants when you are scheduling your mammogram. This will let them know to take the necessary precautions to make sure that as much breast tissue can be seen on the mammogram as possible.

How to perform a breast self-exam

How to Perform a Breast Self-Exam

According to the National Breast Cancer Foundation, “Forty percent of diagnosed breast cancers are detected by women who feel a lump, so establishing a regular breast self-exam routine is very important.” As October is Breast Cancer Awareness month, we are discussing how to do a breast self-exam and why they are an important part of your normal routine. 

The importance of breast self-exams

Regular breast self-exams allow you to notice abnormalities or changes in your breasts that you need to discuss with your gynecologist. Breast self-exams are not, however, a substitute for a breast exam by your doctor or a screening mammogram. Gaining familiarity with the normal look and feel of your breasts can supplement breast cancer screening but it can’t replace it. This will increase the odds of early detection. 

How to perform a breast self-exam

While we will guide you through the techniques to use when performing a breast self-exam, you may find it helpful to ask your gynecologist for a demonstration. 

Choose a time in your menstrual cycle when your breasts are less tender and swollen. Your hormone levels fluctuate throughout the month but are especially high during your menstrual cycle which causes changes in breast tissue. The best time to perform a breast self-exam is usually the week after your menstrual cycle ends and you should try to do a breast self-exam at about the same time each month. 

Visual Examination

Start your breast self-exam by looking at your breasts in the mirror with your shoulders straight and your hands on your hips. During this inspection, you should do the following: 

  • Facing forward, look for puckering, dimpling, or changes in size, shape, or symmetry.
  • Changes in your nipples. This might include inversion or a change in position.
  • Lift each breast to see if the ridges along the bottom are symmetrical.
  • Raise your hands above your head and look for changes in the contour, swelling, or dimpling. 

Physical Examination

There are two common ways to perform the manual part of the breast exam:

#1: In the shower

We recommend performing the breast self-exam in the shower because the moisture on your skin will allow your fingers to glide smoothly over your breasts. Using the pads of your fingers and circular motions about the size of a quarter, move around your entire breasts from the outside to the center checking the entire breast and armpit area. During this process, you are feeling for any lumps, thickening, or hardened knots. 

#2: Lying down

When you’re lying down, the breast tissue spreads out evenly across the chest wall, making it thinner and an ideal position to perform your breast self-exam. Choose a bed or other flat surface, lie down flat, and place a pillow under the arch of your back. Once again using the pads of your fingers, use your left hand to make small circular motions around your right breast and your right hand to do the same on your left breast, covering the entire area from top to bottom and side to side – from your collarbone to the top of your abdomen and from your armpit to your cleavage. 

Alternate between applying light, medium, and firm pressure depending on the area: use light pressure for the tissue just beneath the skin, medium pressure for the tissue in the middle of your breasts, and firm pressure for the deep tissue in the back. 

General tips to bear in mind:

  • Use the pads, not the very tips of your middle three fingers, held flat and together to perform the breast self-exam. 
  • Take your time. This entire process may take several minutes but you want to perform a thorough and not rushed examination. 
  • Follow a pattern to ensure that you are examining the entire breast. 

When should you contact your gynecologist?

You should make an appointment with your gynecologist if you notice any of the following during a breast self-exam:

  • Dimpling, puckering, bulges, or ridges on the skin of your breast
  • A change in your nipple such as inversion or a change in position
  • Nipple discharge especially that which is yellow or blood
  • Changes in the way your breasts look or feel, including thickening
  • A hard lump or knot near your underarm
  • Itching, scales, sores, or rashes
  • Redness, warmth, swelling, or pain

While 8 out of 10 times a lump in your breast is not a sign of breast cancer, early detection significantly increases the chance of survival so if you detect any of the above changes, seek professional medical assistance. 

Give us a call at Mid-Atlantic Women’s Care to schedule an appointment: 757-455-8833.

October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month: Here's What You Should Know

October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month: Here’s What You Should Know

Every year, 245,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer, the second most common cancer in women, and more than 40,000 women die from the disease, according to the CDC. While breast cancer is far more common in women – 99% of the cases plaguing the population are in women – it can also affect men. As October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we want to ensure that you’re aware of the risk factors that could lead to breast cancer, the symptoms associated with it, and how to decrease your chances of a diagnosis

What is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is a disease where the cells in the breasts grow out of control. There are different types of breast cancer and the type is dependent upon which cells in the breast become cancerous. 

Where does breast cancer form?

Breast cancer can begin in different parts of the breasts but most commonly it forms in the milk ducts, the tubes that deliver milk to the nipples. Cancer may also form in the lobules, which are the glands that produce the milk. Breast cancer can spread outside the breast through blood vessels and lymph vessels. 

Know the symptoms of breast cancer

Different people that are diagnosed with breast cancer may experience different symptoms while some may experience none at all. Some symptoms commonly associated with breast cancer include:

  • Nipple inversion or pain in the nipple area.
  • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast.
  • Discharge from the nipple other than breast milk; this includes blood.
  • Changes in the size or shape of the breast.
  • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin.
  • A new lump in the breast or armpit.
  • Thickening or swelling of part of the breast. 
  • Pain in any area of the breast. 

While some of these symptoms could be associated with a condition that is not cancer, if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you, schedule an appointment with your doctor right away. 

Reduce your risk for breast cancer

Your risk for breast cancer is due to a combination of factors, where the main ones that increase your risk include being a woman and getting older. Most breast cancers are found in women that are 50 or older while about 10% of new breast cancer cases are found in women younger than 45. Many factors over your lifetime can affect your breast cancer risk, some that you have no control over, your family history or age for example, while you have the ability to lower your risk by taking care of your health.

Breast cancer risk factors you cannot control

  • Aging: The risk of breast cancer increases as you age with most breast cancers diagnosed after the age of 50.
  • Menstrual cycle history: Women whose menstrual cycles started before age 12 and those who started menopause after age 55 have a higher risk of breast cancer because they are exposed to hormones longer. 
  • Family history of breast cancer: The risk for breast cancer is higher if a woman’s mother, sister, or daughter or if multiple distant relatives on either parent’s side have had breast cancer. 
  • Personal history of breast cancer or other non-cancerous breast diseases: Women who have had a history of breast cancer are more likely to get breast cancer a second time. 
  • Previous radiation therapy treatment: Women who have had radiation therapy on their breasts or chest before the age of 30 have a higher risk of breast cancer later in life.
  • Having dense breasts: Dense breasts means a woman has more connective tissue than fatty tissue which makes it more difficult to detect tumors on a mammogram. 
  • Genetic mutations: Women who have inherited genetic mutations to certain genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with breast and ovarian cancer.
  • Women who took the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES): DES was a drug given to pregnant women between 1940 and 1971 to prevent miscarriage. Women who took it or whose mothers took it while pregnant with them have a higher risk of breast cancer.

Breast cancer risk factors you can control

  • Maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularly, particularly after menopause. 
  • Breastfeeding your children lowers your risk of a breast cancer diagnosis. 
  • Getting pregnant for the first time after age 30, not breastfeeding, and never having a full-term pregnancy can raise breast cancer risk.
  • External hormones like birth control pills, oral contraceptives, and hormone replacement therapy have been found to raise breast cancer risk. Ask your doctor about the risks to find the best solution for you. 
  • Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. Limit alcohol intake to one drink a day or less. 

Get breast cancer screenings regularly

As we stated earlier, some women who are diagnosed with breast cancer don’t experience any symptoms at all, making it that much more vital that you get regular breast cancer screenings. A breast cancer screening involves checking a woman’s breasts for cancer before signs or symptoms of the disease manifest themselves. It does not prevent breast cancer but it can assist in finding breast cancer early and early detection makes it easier to treat. Talk to your doctor about the best time to start getting regular breast cancer screenings and which test is best for you. 

Living with Incurable STDs

Living with Incurable STDs

Learning that you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD) can certainly be a scary prognosis. Each infection comes with its own symptoms, levels of pain, and treatment options if they are available. Plus there’s always the task of telling your partner that you have a condition that could affect them too. Whether you think you have an STD or your doctor has confirmed it, it’s important that you learn as much as possible about your particular condition and whether or not there are treatment options to lessen or alleviate your symptoms. 

Before we discuss incurable STDs, it’s important to note that any person that is sexually active is at risk of contracting STDs making it that much more pertinent that you educate yourself and practice safe sex every single time. 

Incurable STDs and Treatment Options

There are sexually transmitted diseases that can be cured with antibiotics and medication but here we have compiled a list of those that stay with you for the rest of your life. 

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is probably the most well-known of all STDs and is a chronic disease that severely attacks the infected person’s immune system. If left untreated, it can develop into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). With the development of AIDS comes a significant decline in your immune system’s ability to fight even the most minor infections, the common cold for example. 

HIV is spread through bodily fluids and can progress and spread quite rapidly through three stages: 

  1. Acute HIV infection: This refers to the first two to four week period after a person has been infected during which he or she is highly contagious exhibiting flu-like symptoms. Some people experience no symptoms at all or assume it is the flu, which is why it’s important that you get tested if you think you’ve been exposed. 
  2. Clinical latency: During this stage, the virus is still present and reproducing at a slow rate which can lead to the person feeling just fine. A person could live in this stage for several decades if he or she is undergoing proper treatment, lowering their chances of infecting someone else.
  3. AIDS: In this last stage, the immune system is so damaged that they’re unable to fight off even the most minor illness. When left untreated, AIDS typically leaves those infected with just three years to live. 

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the best medication to treat HIV and consists of a daily cocktail of several prescription pills. When taken every day, the medication can drastically prolong the life of someone affected by HIV, relieving their symptoms and lowering the chance of infecting others. With the introduction of the medication in the mid-90s, someone with HIV could live nearly as long as someone not affected by the virus. 

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis has five different varieties but type B is most commonly spread through sex and results in a liver infection. It’s the primary cause of liver cancer or cirrhosis (liver failure). Hepatitis B can be prevented with a vaccine but patients that contract the chronic infection have it for life. It’s highly contagious and can be transmitted through contact with semen, vaginal fluids, blood, and urine. Protect yourself with the Hep B vaccine and by practicing safe sex. 

Hepatitis B generally goes away on its own in four to eight weeks with symptoms often not manifesting and doctors recommending you rest, eat well, and drink plenty of fluids. However, one in 20 people who get it as adults become carriers, which means they will have chronic hepatitis B and will have the disease for life, although there are medications a doctor can provide to help treat it. 

HPV

While HIV may be the most well-known and feared STD, Human Papillomavirus is the most common. According to the CDC, approximately 79 million Americans are currently infected and nearly all sexually active men and women will contract HPV at some point in their lives. The problem with HPV and part of the reason that it’s so widespread is that the virus often goes undetected. Your partner may not show any symptoms and yet they can still pass the virus through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. 

This virus is one of the reasons that your annual exam is so important as abnormal cells in your cervix can indicate HPV or cervical cancer so make sure you’re scheduling an appointment with your gynecologist every year. 

The HPV vaccine is recommended for prevention. If you develop genital warts as a result of the virus, doctors may prescribe topical medicine or you can have them removed. If your doctor has detected cervical precancer as a result of your pap smear, prevention may still be possible if detected in its early stages. 

Herpes

Herpes is another virus that manifests in more than one type: there’s herpes simplex 1 which usually lives in the mouth in the form of cold sores and herpes simplex 2 which lives around the genitals. During an outbreak, fluid-filled blisters will appear and eventually break, causing painful sores for about two weeks. 

According to the CDC, 1 in 6 people in the US between the ages of 14 and 49 have genital herpes but over 80% of people with genital herpes are unaware that they have it. Herpes can be contracted through vaginal, anal, or oral sex and transmission is possible even without the presence of visible sores. 

If you are pregnant and think you might have been exposed to the herpes virus, you must let your OB-GYN know as soon as possible. The infection could result in a miscarriage, premature delivery, or neonatal herpes which can be fatal. 

Because sores often exist on the skin on and around the genital area, condoms are not 100% effective in protecting a person from contracting herpes, making it extremely important that you get tested. 

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea does respond to medicine, however, there is a fast-growing strain that is resistant to the antibiotic regimen long-used to treat gonorrhea. About 820,000 people get gonorrhea infections in the US each year. A person with gonorrhea may show no signs but symptoms can include discharge from the vagina or penis, vaginal bleeding between periods, painful or swollen testicles, and a painful, burning sensation when urinating. 

If you get tested and discover that you have gonorrhea, your doctor will prescribe a treatment that involves two different drugs to stop the infection. This treatment cannot undo any permanent damage that the disease might have caused up to this point. But as we stated earlier, the CDC says that the new drug-resistant strains threaten the medication’s effectiveness. If you find that your symptoms continue even after receiving treatment, it’s important that you inform your doctor immediately. 

Managing Incurable STDs

In addition to seeking proper treatment, it’s also important to seek proper support. Ignoring a sexually transmitted disease won’t make it go away; in fact, it could cause irreversible damage to your internal organs. In addition to that physical damage, it can also cause a substantial amount of stress. You may want to seek counseling or a support group and you should know there’s no shame in doing either; it’s important that you don’t feel isolated while going through treatment. 

And if you are sexually active and have not been tested recently, you should do so. After all, many STDs don’t have any symptoms and 50% of the population will have contracted one by the time they’re 25

If you potentially have been exposed to an STD, getting tested is the only way to know for sure and take steps to seek treatment. We don’t want you to take any risks when it comes to your health. To schedule your annual appointment with Mid-Atlantic Women’s Care, click here.

What You Should Know About Birth Control

What You Should Know About Birth Control

While most women have a basic working knowledge of birth control (meaning they know it’s used for contraception), there are many nuances within each type of birth control that make it the best choice for each individual and the other purposes it serves. So today we want to give you an overview of the most popular birth control methods, how they work, which method may work best for you and your needs, and reasons you might choose to use birth control aside from contraception

What are the most common birth control methods?

Condoms

Due to their easy accessibility, condoms are the most popular type of birth control and a preferred method of contraception for people who are not in monogamous relationships because they are effective at protecting from several sexually transmitted diseases. They are also great for reducing your chances of getting an infection from oral and anal sex. Because of this, condoms are often used in addition to other birth control methods that aren’t as effective in this area. But know that they are not 100% effective in protecting against STDs because they do not cover all vulnerable areas. No other birth control methods in this list will protect against STDs. 

Here are a few steps you should take to ensure that condoms are as effective as possible:

  • Don’t double up. It actually makes them less effective because the friction of the two rubbing together increases the chances of them breaking.
  • Always check the expiration date.
  • Wear the condom from beginning to end, not just when the male ejaculates.
  • Store them at room temperature.

Oral Contraceptives

More commonly known as The Pill, oral contraceptives are another popular and effective means of preventing pregnancy…as long as the woman remembers to take them at the same time every single day. With that being said, the pill may not be the best method for people who are forgetful because forgetting to take it greatly reduces its effectiveness. 

The pill works by preventing ovulation but like we said earlier, the pill is not going to protect you against STDs so it should be used in combination with condoms if you are in a situation where you could be vulnerable to STDs.

Intrauterine Device (IUD)

An IUD is a small piece of plastic, resembling a T, that releases hormones into your bloodstream that either prevent ovulation or block sperm from reaching an egg. 

They are a popular birth control method of choice for women who don’t wish to become a mother any time soon (or ever) because they can be inserted without the woman having to worry about birth control for several years. The span of time depends upon the brand of the IUD so you should discuss options with your gynecologist. They are also great for women who know that they won’t be able to remember to take oral contraceptives on a daily basis. 

The Patch

The patch is also a birth control method that controls your hormones and prevents pregnancy by blocking the ovaries from releasing eggs, increasing the thickness of cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching an egg, and causing the lining of the uterus to become porous so that, if fertilization does occur, the egg can’t implant in the uterus. The patch is placed on your skin and must be replaced weekly, available only via prescription. 

Emergency Contraception

More commonly known as “the morning-after pill,” this birth control method must be taken within 72 hours of having unprotected sex (or some other mishap occurred). The morning-after pill works by temporarily stopping the release of eggs from the ovaries. And if an egg has already been released, the pill can prevent that egg from becoming fertilized by sperm. 

The morning-after pill comes with the common misconception that it is an “abortion pill” but that is not the case; in order for an abortion to occur, a fertilized egg has to attach to the uterus. 

None of the birth control methods that we’ve listed above are 100% failproof. It’s important that along with obtaining birth control, you talk to your gynecologist about your overall health and practicing safe sex. There are side effects that come with hormonal alternatives like most birth control methods that can have adverse effects on your body, particularly if you are taking other medications. 

Besides contraception, what are other reasons that people get on birth control?

Some of the most common reasons women may decide to take birth control include:

Treat Acne

Many women with chronic acne who have tried many different types of face washes, ointments, and acne systems with no results will often turn to birth control. Birth control pills can reduce the production of sebum which in turn can decrease the number of breakouts a woman has. 

Treat Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS is a hormonal imbalance that results in irregular periods that can manifest itself in unusually heavy menstruation, pelvic pain, and excessive body hair growth. Taking birth control pills can help to regulate your hormones and prevent these symptoms. 

Migraine Prevention

Migraines can be a premenstrual symptom for some women as they are a result of a drop in estrogen. Birth control pills can help to regulate those hormones and significantly reduce or even eliminate migraines that are related to PMS.

Treat Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

This condition, also known as Primary Ovarian Failure, occurs when a woman doesn’t produce enough estrogen for her ovaries to function properly and can result in irritability, vaginal dryness, and hot flashes in women under 40. The pill can once again help to regulate estrogen levels.

Ease Endometriosis

Endometriosis is when tissue, usually only found inside the uterus, starts growing outside the womb. During a menstrual cycle, that tissue is generally released with your period but if it grows outside of the uterus, it has nowhere to go and can cause immense pain or even infertility. Some contraceptives prevent pain that’s associated with endometriosis by preventing the growth of that tissue. 

Contact Mid-Atlantic Women’s Care for More Information on Birth Control Methods

We are confident that any questions you may have about birth control or other health-related inquiries, we have heard countless times and can help you find a solution for it. We work hard to establish great relationships with every single one of our patients and that starts here. Contact us to schedule an appointment.

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Mid-Atlantic Women’s Care consists of over 30 OB/GYN facilities and 6 Imaging Centers throughout the Hampton Roads community
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